Saturday, August 22, 2020
At the point when we are free, tune in to music, and consider our fantasies. Dreams can be typical, straightforward, extraordinary or complex. Dreams living in our cerebrum, some of the time they clear, at times they lost. How might we arrive at our fantasies? Have you attempted to inquire as to whether you have dreams? An individual without dreams Just like the earth without sun, wherever loaded with murkiness; sky without mists, desolate constantly. On the off chance that you are longing for something that you might want to occur, at that point attempt to get it going. I can think about no preferable inspiration power over attempting to follow your reams.Rome was not worked in one day, so we can't arrive at our fantasies one day. The thing we can do now, never surrender your fantasies, hold your fantasies. Regardless of you are in a difficult situation, how enormous the difficulty is. Inconvenience can't be with you until the end of time. They will leave sometime in the future, when they had gone, your fantasies from your bit nearer. We will compose a custom exposition test on Introduction Albums and Expert Chris Gardner or then again any comparable point explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page The film The quest for satisfaction a genuine tale about U. S. Venture master Chris Gardner. He was poor single parent of a child. Modest inn, park even the train station latrine, has become their haven. Be that as it may, he never surrenders even he just have $21. 3. He had told his child Do not ever let someone let you know can't accomplish something, not even me. You got a fantasy, you goat secure it. Individuals can't accomplish something themselves, they need to let you know can't do It. In the event that you need something, go get It. At the point when a man In his circumstance, I don't have the foggiest idea what number of them feel sad and going to surrender. At the point when he landed the Position, when he hold his child hand to his home. Material riches may not mean all the joy, he and his children experience during this troublesome time recoveries is his most noteworthy asset.What I am attempting to state Is never surrender, hold your fantasies until the last second In your life. So if it's not too much trouble wear not let anybody take your fantasies, or attempt to reveal to you they are Impossible. In the event that you don't have dreams, proceed to discover your fantasies. On the off chance that you have dreams, holds them secure them and let them work out. It Is most joyful when you have dreams, particularly when dreams materialize and influences your life. Dreams make your life rich and vivid, brimming with daylight. Dreams will work out as expected some time or another never surrender!
Friday, August 21, 2020
Presentation Uncertainty consistently reigns in the psyches of directors with regards to choosing what effect is achieved by the serious techniques used by the chiefs. This vulnerability is much more when firms work in new conditions, for example, the e-online business platform.Advertising We will compose a custom report test on Amazon.com Competitive Strategies explicitly for you for just $16.05 $11/page Learn More The way that there are a developing number of firms joining the internet business condition is ground enough to set up systems that would empower a firm contend viably in the new condition. Understanding the procedures which would be usable in accomplishing an incentive in web based business is a need among e-organizations (Filson 2004). Amazon.com being a main online retailer for books is an e-business which has over the time situated itself deliberately to stay important and serious in a progressively advancing condition. Amazon.com: Overview Amazon.com was established by Jeff Bezos, who is additionally the present CEO of the organization, in July 1995; be that as it may, the organization began working as an open firm in 1997. Amazon.com started as an online book shop however then entered the music store field in June 1998. These administrations and products, and others which Amazon.com has wandered in, are offered on retail premise consequently making the firm a remarkable web retailer (Filson 2004). It is imperative to take note of a portion of the significant contenders of Amazon.com incorporate Barnes Noble and eBay among others. Contrasted with its rivals for example counting even the early contenders, Amazon.comÃ¢â¬â¢s advertise esteem has stayed bigger in this way making the organization consistently hang out in execution. While the principle contenders experienced fall in their fairly estimated worth after their top in the late 1990s, Amazon.comÃ¢â¬â¢s esteem has been unmistakably remarkable (Filson 2004). Serious Strategies Amazon.com understood that the hypothesis of expanding deals as a general technique for the seriousness of a business was insufficient in the e-following condition. In acknowledgment that investigating other product offerings may build a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s serious position, Amazon.com has sought after different lines of business including Ã¢â¬Å"1-Click requesting and zShopsÃ¢â¬ .Advertising Looking for report on business financial aspects? How about we check whether we can support you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These shopping gadgets facilitated shopping by offering customers more data since arrangement of items has been made conceivable. What's more, 1-Click installment include for example offers proposals on books or music which might be identified with the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s search. This has in the long run prompted an expansion in esteem. Since the above techniques are not cost based, AmazonÃ¢â¬â¢s contenders have thought that it was trying to mirror (Datamonitor 2011). This is on the grounds that innovation used to grow such highlights is normally licensed, consequently banning contenders from emulating the innovation. With respect to zShops and closeouts, Amazon deliberately profited in that others were offered a chance to use AmazonÃ¢â¬â¢s innovations. Shopping at Amazon.com has been utilized these shopping gadgets just as using activities. Amazon.com likewise understands that extending product offerings doesn't really convert into expanded market esteem. Rather, the firm distinguishes that particular line of items accomplish this. These incorporate Ã¢â¬Å"small, high worth/weight items, for example, books, gadgets, wellbeing and magnificence items, music, toys and games, and videosÃ¢â¬ (Filson 2004, p.152). By going into these lines of business, Amazon.com has stayed at the highest point of its rivals the extent that market esteem is thought of. Other than its authority www.amazon.com site, Amazon additionally expands its worldwide nearnes s by offering its items on different sites accessible universally. For example, in its early stages, Amazon.com shaped special partnerships with unmistakable entries, for example, Yahoo and Netscape among others. Special administrations just as promoting through mainstream entryways set Amazon.com separated seriously against its rivals, making Amazon.com rout its opponents during its initial years. Notwithstanding the way that limited time benefits through significant entryways have lost worth given Amazon.comÃ¢â¬â¢s phase of development, it is no uncertainty that it was a fundamental instrument in taking the firm where it is currently in the e-showcasing condition (OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien Shambora 2009).Advertising We will compose a custom report test on Amazon.com Competitive Strategies explicitly for you for just $16.05 $11/page Learn More Rivette and Kline (2000) stress that the rise of protected innovation is a business competiveness device in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s business world. Other than boosting the general intensity of an association, Rivette and Kline (2000) state that licenses have, recently, become roads for improving money related markets and setting up an exclusive bit of leeway. This is through the way that licenses help secure the uniqueness of a business framework and decrease corporate hazard. Clever thoughts and innovations must be secured if present day organizations, particularly ICT-based organizations, must benefit from them to increase both deliberately and seriously. The licensing of AmazonÃ¢â¬â¢s 1-Click framework, which is a framework that is utilized all together handling, was a serious weapon set up by the organization in 1999. This would later give Amazon influence in a suit where Barnes Noble had encroached on the 1-Click framework rights. Amazon won the case. Amazon is eminent for its steady extending of its muscle into business lines which are totally new, subsequently winding up disturbing the enterprises it joins. It tends to be named as a firm which is bold in any event, when they face disappointment. From an online book shop to a music store, Amazon enhanced into treadmills, distributed computing and can seats, just to give some examples territories where it has wandered. Amazon has as of late taken the test to Apple by thinking of Kindle, which is to some degree contender of the iPad. This is only a sign of how far Amazon is happy to experience to guarantee its maintainability given the present dynamism in the market (OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien Shambora 2009). Moreover, KindleÃ¢â¬â¢s tablet apparatus is as of now empowering extending of the digital books space, along these lines making Amazon a predominant firm in the digital book showcase since its dispatch in 2007. It is recorded that book deals as empowered by Kindle surpassed the offer of hardcover books on www.amazon.com by July 2010. There have been more Kindle book buys from Amazon site now than any of the two print books offered by Amazon. Amazon has consequentl y increased both upper hand and income age through this progressive device (Datamonitor 2011). The excellence of Amazon being a pioneer in online retail business has just situated it to arrive at a wide client base. This is something that is begrudged by its rivals.Advertising Searching for report on business financial aspects? We should check whether we can support you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Find out More How Amazon.comÃ¢â¬â¢s has Created Superior Customer Value Amazon is a business of its sort and has recently stood out because of its path of noteworthy development. It has continued grasping transformational development sending its limbs into various interests while as yet attempting to hold a part of center business. Amazon began as an online book business and this was at that point exceptionally inventive as it was worked around a changing client incentive bringing another perspective on the book business (Burgelman Meza 2001). It at that point went past books to a wide range of buyer merchandise that could be effectively delivered. Its perspective on center business right now began transforming from that of an item to a business plan. Later the business wandered into commission-based financier to merchants of trade-in books and afterward to outsider venders. It was consequently not, at this point a deal just however a deals and-administration model. In 2002, the organization at that point wandered into web benefits, a field in IT and totally different from its delivery and exchange help business. More than 200,000 outside web engineers were sans giving assistance. 2007 saw Amazon set up lab 126 that propelled its first item, the Kindle digital book peruser taking steps to upset the distributing business. This saw 500,000 digital books for kids sold in the main year. digital books on Amazon are currently a blasting business and have significantly extended. Today, Amazon offers worldÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest choice and is looking to be the most client driven organization. They offer a large number of exceptional, new, utilized, and revamped things in a few classifications like gems and watches, wellbeing, nourishment, sports, books, hardware, toys and numerous different classifications. Amazon has demonstrated capacity to discover new chances to serve an alternate kind of demographic or serve a similar customers in another manner and still hold an incentive in the old business. Amazon.com: an a valid example Amazon.com utilized web as its lone technique for offering merchandise to its clients. It has a few contenders like Barnes Noble and furthermore Borders. There are likewise others like eBay and Google. The upper hand that Amazon.com has over Barnes and Noble is that its expenses are fundamentally lower as the contenders use blocks and cement as their conveyance channel (Brandenburger Nalebuff 1996). Amazon.com has no customer facing facades and the principle dissemination distribution center can be found anyplace even away from thickly populated zones where other ordinary organizations might want to have their stores found. This permits Amazon to pay less expensive as far as lease as it finds its distribution center in low lease zones. Because of the different manners by which Amazon can stay away from costs, it can convey things at costs lower than showcase costs and still produce benefit. Other contending on the web book retailers can't convey benefits as those of Amazon because of its ongoing blast,
Saturday, May 30, 2020
World Wars I and II (Research Paper Sample) Content: World Wars I and IINameInstitutionWorld Wars I and IIThe First World War, which was fought from 1914 to 1918, and the Second World War, which was fought from 1939 to 1945, are the most lethal and annihilating wars that have ever been fought in the history of mankind. Despite the two wars being fought on two different occasions in history, they both involved military alliances between different countries. In the First World War for instance, there was Triple Entebbe incorporating Britain, France and Russia on one side. On the other side there was the Central power which was comprised of Germany, Italy and Austria-Hungary. In the Second World War, there was the Allies on one side and the Axis on the other side. Thus, there are a myriad of differences and similarities characterizing the two wars. This paper compares and contrasts the two wars with regards to their origins.The First World WarThe First World War began on July 28, 1914 and came to an end on November 11, 191 8. The war was majorly fought in Europe and it incorporated the worlds greatest powers which had formed two major alliances opposing each other. On one hand, there was the Allies which was based on the Triple Entebbe of the United Kingdom, Russia and France (Dowswell, Brocklehurst, and Brook 57-59). On the other hand, there was the Central powers which consisted of the Tipple Alliance of Germany, Italy and Austria-Hungary. Even so, the alliances were not inclined to the six countries exclusively. With time, more and more nations joined the war expanding the alliances even further. Also, the alliances reorganized themselves as time went by. In the final analysis, there war attracted over 20 million soldiers across the world with Europeans constituting a larger percentage (Duffy).The origins of this war can be attributed to a myriad of both long-term and short-term causes in the world history. As such, the long-term factors include a variety of conflicts and hostilities that had marre d the European nations prior to the war. This includes the imperialist foreign polices that had dominated the European great powers including the Russian empire, the French Republic, the Austro-Hungarian empire, the British Empire as well as the Italy. However, the most immediate cause of the war was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, who was an heir to the Austria-Hungary throne. According to Duffy, the assassination occurred on June 28, 1914. Following this tragic assassination, a series of wars were triggered. To begin with, there was a Habsburg ultimatum against Serbia. Consequently, the alliances which had been established earlier on were greatly invoked. Thus, within the next few weeks, the worlds major powers were at war with each other. This occurred in an unprecedented sequence. Apparently, one thing led to the other.For instance, in July 1914, Austria-Hungary invaded Serbia. A few weeks later, Germany invaded Belgium, France and Luxembourg. This prompted Russia to attack Germany. Also, the Russians attacked Austria-Hungary. Other forces joined the war. For instance, in late 1914, the Ottoman Empire joined the war. In 1915, Bulgaria and Italy also followed suit and were later joined by Romania.Meanwhile, there was a revolution in Russia in October 1917 following the collapse of the Russian empire. This compelled Russia to withdraw from the war. Ultimately, the United States was forced to enter the war in 1918, following a German offensive. This empowered the Allies who successfully launched a series of attacks on German allies. At the same time, German was experiencing hurdles with revolutionaries in its territory. Thus, on November 11, they agreed to end the war, marking the victory of the allies.The aftermaths of the war were adverse. It is estimated that over 9 million combatants were killed during the war. Several civilians in various countries were also killed. Also, there was the collapse of several empires. For instance, by the end of the war, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Russia, as well as the Ottoman empires collapsed totally. This facilitated the redrawing of the European map. Also, the end of the First World War saw the need for world peace. Thus, the League of Nations was established so as to prevent the occurrence of any possible wars in future.Be that as it may, the breakup and ultimate collapse of various European empires, coupled with the problems surrounding the Treaty of Versailles became the major contributors to the onset if the second world war (Henig).The Second World WarFollowing the defeat of the Central powers in the First World War, the European political map was significantly altered. The Allies, who had emerged victorious, gained more territories at the expense of the Central powers. Thus, new states were created from the collapsed empires of Russia and Ottoman.As a result of the Treaty of Versailles, Germany lost a significant part of its home territories as well as its overseas territories . In addition, German was prohibited from annexing other states and a series of reparations were imposed against it. The treaty also placed a limit on the size and capacity of Germanys military forces.Meanwhile, following the dissolution of the German Empire as a result of the German Revolution, there was the formation of a Weimer Republic which was a democratic government. In Italy, the Italians were angered by the failure by France and Britain to keep eth promise of securing Italian entrance into the war as had been stipulated in the peace settlement. Thus, the period between 1922 up to 1925 saw Benito Mussolini under the Fascist Movement, seize power in Italy (Dowswell, Brocklehurst, and Brook 112). He established a totalitarian agenda which abolished democracy in Italy and repressed the incumbent socialism. In addition, Mussolini adopted a very aggressive foreign policy which was directed towards forcefully making Italy a world power.This was also the case in Germany where Adolf Hitler through the Nazi party, strived to institute a fascist government as well. His endeavors were boosted by the onset of the Great Depression which bolstered domestic support for the Nazi. Consequently, Hitler was appointed the Chancellor of Germany in 1933, whereby he established a totalitarian single- state party under the leadership of the Nazis. Hitler embarked on a massive rearmament campaign thereby repudiating the Treaty of Versailles. France allowed Italy to take over Ethiopia, a territory that had been desired by Italy over a long period.In China, the Kuomintang Party commenced a unification campaign in opposition to the regional warlords (Keegan 311). The aftermath of the unification campaign was a prolonged civil war against the communist allies. The Japanese empire intruded Chinese affairs by invading the Manchuria. This prompted China to seek help from the League of Nation. As a result, Japan pulled out of the League of Nations following its condemnation for invadi ng Manchuria. Consequently, China and Japan were then involved into a series of warsThere was a rush to form alliances by several European powers. For instance, Italy, France and the United Kingdom allied together to form the Stresa Front. Conversely, the United States enacted the Neutrality Act. Later on in 1936, German and Italy formed established the Rome-Berlin Axis. This was preceded by the signing of the Anti-Comintern Pact by Germany and Japan and later on Italy (Keegan 316). Eventually, there emerged two great opposing military powers. On one hand there was Allies whereas on the other hand there was the Axis.As much as Japan and China were already involved in a was in 1937, the onset of the second world war transpired on September 1, 1939 following the invasion of Poland by Germany. According to Beamish (32), this prompted France and many other countries of the British Empire to declare war on Germany. With the use of several treaties and campaigns, Germany managed to conque red and subdue several territories of its neighbors between 1939 and 1941.Britain allied with other commonwealth countries and perpetuated the fight against the Axis. The European Axis invaded the Soviet Union in 1941. Meanwhile, Japan conquered most countries in the West Pacific. However, it lost a series of battles, while the European Axis soldiers were also defeated in the North African battle. A series of other defeats against Germany followed. Ultimately, the war in Europe came to a halt through the capturing of the Berlin by the Polish and Soviet soldiers. Dowswell, Brocklehurst, and Brook (57), recorded that Germany surrendered unconditionally on May 8, 1945. Furthermore, following the defeat in the war in Asia, Japan surrendered on August 15, 1945. Thus, the termination of the war marked a total victory of the Allies over the Axis.Despite the many differences sustained in the above analysis, it is apparent that the First World War and the Second World War there a variety of similarities and differences that are evidence with regards to their origins.With reference to similarities, it is apparent that both wars were to an extent invoked by Germans ambitions. This is attributed by the desire by German to control E...
Saturday, May 16, 2020
In the Iliad, the oldest and greatest of the Greek epics, Homer tells of the wars fought between the Greeks and the Trojans. Much of this books main focus takes place during the Homeric period in which the Trojan War began. In a pre industrial society, Homer describes the way mortals and immortals sought their existence throughout the Trojan War. Homers style of writing in Iliad enables a modern reader to perceive how the Ancient Greeks thought of warfare, of religion, and of the role of women and children. The Helladic Greeks valued fighting as a way to settle disputes. There was a significant degree of religious activity that took place during the Trojan War. Homer also allows a modern reader to grasp an idea of the roleÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦It was Menelaus turn now, and as he rose I his bronze he prayed to Zeus. (Homer 61) Around the Homeric period, it was typical for Helladic warriors to fight in a gruesome manner. In the following passage, an atrocious fight bet ween two warriors, Meges and pedaeus, enables a modern reader to grasp a sense the warriors extreme brutality. Now Meges got close enough to him to send his spear through the tendon at the back of his neck and on into his mouth, cutting away the tongue at its root. He fell into the dust, his teeth clenched on cold bronze. (Homer 85) This is the following remark made by Diomedes, after being painfully wounded by an arrow. Son of Capaneus, get down from the car and pull this arrow out of my shoulder. (Homer 86) Not only did the Helladic warriors value fighting as a way to settle disputes, they also valued the intervening of Helladic gods and goddesses. Numerous religious activities takes place in Homers Iliad. For example, when Menelaus comes close to killing Paris in a duel, Aphrodite, a goddess whos in favor of the Trojans, saves Paris by whisking Paris away from the fight. But Aphrodite whisked Paris away with the slight of a goddess, enveloping him in mist, and lofted him into the incensed air of his vaulted bedroom. Then she went for Helen, and found her in a crowd of Trojan women high on the tower. (Homer 62) After Aphrodite whisks Paris away from the duel,Show MoreRelatedGreek Mythology8088 Words Ã |Ã 33 PagesGreekÃ MythologyÃ IÃ INTRODUCTIONÃ TempleÃ ofÃ ApolloÃ atÃ DidymaÃ TheÃ GreeksÃ builtÃ theÃ TempleÃ ofÃ ApolloÃ atÃ Didyma,Ã TurkeyÃ (aboutÃ 300Ã bc).Ã TheÃ templeÃ supposedlyÃ housedÃ anÃ oracleÃ whoÃ foretoldÃ theÃ futureÃ toÃ thoseÃ seekingÃ knowledge.Ã TheÃ predictionsÃ ofÃ theÃ oracles,Ã deliveredÃ inÃ theÃ formÃ ofÃ riddles,Ã oftenÃ broughtÃ unexpectedÃ resultsÃ toÃ theÃ seeker.Ã WithÃ IonicÃ columnsÃ reachingÃ 19.5Ã mÃ (64Ã ft)Ã high,Ã theseÃ ruinsÃ suggestÃ theÃ formerÃ grandeurÃ ofÃ theÃ ancientÃ temple.Ã BernardÃ Cox/BridgemanÃ ArtÃ Library,Ã London/NewÃ YorkÃ Read More Destiny, Fate and Free Will in Homers Odyssey Essay2299 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesof his or her destiny, every step of the way.Ã Who is to say which viewpoint is false?Ã Every culture has a unique perception of the role of fate in our lives, and no group has the right answer, simply a d ifferent answer.Ã Taking into consideration the views of other cultures can help an individual refine his personal viewpoint on this inconceivable subject.Ã The ancient Greeks were mainly concerned with the relationship between fate and free will.Ã This concern weaves in and out of the culturesRead MoreCleopatr The Ruler Behind The Myth3455 Words Ã |Ã 14 PagesJones claims Cleopatra was a chameleon in the skin of an Egyptian Pharaoh. As such she molded herself to fit what would best procure her the much needed tactics to strengthen and maximize the power she inherited. As the world changed, so did their perception of Cleopatra; and, in turn every generation construed her differently: from evil seductress, ill-fated star-crossed lover to renewed empowering feminist icon. The Cleopatra painted in this paper will decidedly be more reserved, acutely un-promiscuousRead MoreArab Culture - Essay6842 Words Ã |Ã 28 Pageswhere modern cities mingle with ancient ones. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The Arab world is one big desert: O Truly geographically complex and diverse. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Stereotypes of Arab males: O All are Ã¢â¬Å"oil-rich SheiksÃ¢â¬ as in the West; there are economically diverse segments of the population. O Mad dictators, there are various types of political systems in Arab world. O Terrorists. Overwhelming majority are law abiding citizens with families and a wide variety of occupations. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Stereotypes of Arab women: O All are oppressed by men. NotRead MoreHomosexuality and God6017 Words Ã |Ã 25 Pagesindividuals. TERMS AND CONCEPTS RELATED TO SEXUAL ORIENTATION amp; LGBT It is important to recognize the difference between sexual orientation and sexual behavior as well as the differences among sexual orientation, gender identity, and gender role. Sexual orientation is the affectional or loving attraction to another person. It can be considered as ranging along a continuum from same-sex attraction only at one end of the continuum to opposite-sex attraction only at the other end. HeterosexualityRead More The Republic by Plato Essay5378 Words Ã |Ã 22 Pagessharp contrast to Socrates, who suggests that the stronger may not always know his own interest; therefore, at times, it is necessary for the weaker to disobey him. Socrates then successfully upsets the definition by demonstrating that, insofar as his role is an art, a ruler acts in the best interest of his subjects, as exemplified by the physician for his patients and the captain for his crew. Still unresolved, the debate moves into a second stage, where tyranny, or perfect injustice, and benevolentRead MoreLanguage and the Destiny of Man12402 Words Ã |Ã 50 Pagesits rugged topography, with serious consequences in terms the perception of the self and of the other. By being aware of such situations, one may be more able to understand why certain interpretations, while highly debatable, manage to take centre stage and occasionally dominate entire eras. Moreover, one may perceive more easily a kind of Ã¢â¬Å"pathologyÃ¢â¬ of interpretation (in the Kantian understanding of the term, which invokes the Greek pathos), with possible disorders and excesses. Although the interpretationRead MoreA Picatrix Miscellany52019 Words Ã |Ã 209 Pagesimpose a logical order on the illogicality of the book. Book I In the preface, after some autobiographical material, the author gives his reason for writing the work, which is to shed light on the nature of magic, a secret closely guarde d by the ancient philosophers. He adds a summary of the contents of his four books (pp.1-3). This is replaced, in some manuscripts, by a detailed list of contents, arranged by chapter, of which a translation will be found on pp. lxxvi-lxxviii of the present volumeRead MoreTrobriand Islanders-Malinowski and Weiner10855 Words Ã |Ã 44 Pagesexchanges of banana leaf bundles and skirts, most importantly at mortuary distributions. In her reassessment of the relations of the sexes in the Trobriands she portrayed men as controlling events in historical time and space (the social domain) and women as controlling events in ahistorical time and space (the cosmological domain) (1976, 20). This distinction, she later observed, was an attempt to escape the connotations of two separate spheres constituted by terms like private/public or nature/cultureRead MoreHow Fa Has the Use of English Language Enriched or Disrupted Life and Culture in Mauritius15928 Words Ã |Ã 64 Pagesstanza begins the subjectÃ¢â¬â¢s journey of realization and of their immoralities, which they have not paid attention to until death was kindly enough to demonstrate. The third stanza uses positive, beautiful and innocent examples of life. The use of children, fields and the setting sun manifest the beauty of life and how this person paid attention while they were alive. The fifth stanza uses the description of a disintegrating home that has been left alone. The home can represent the subjectÃ¢â¬â¢s life,
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
INTRODUCTION In every nurses career, the nurse is faced with many legal or ethical dilemmas. One of the professional competencies for nursing states that nurses should integrate knowledge of ethical and legal aspects of health care and professional values into nursing practice. It is important to know what types of dilemmas nurses may face during their careers and how they may have been dealt with in the past. It is also important for nurses to understand what malpractice is and how they may protect themselves from a malpractice suit. LAW VS. ETHICS It is important to first understand the difference between law and ethics. Ethics examines the values and actions of people. Often times there is no one right course of action whenÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Many hot topics in ethics relate to the right to life. These topics include euthanasia and the discontinuation of life support treatments. The right to autonomy is also referred to as the right of self-determination. This right allows for the patient to make their own decisions, such as: determining what course of treatment he may take for a disease, refusing treatment, or refusing medications. The right to health care requires that a society shall provide the funding, personnel, and facilities necessary to ensure that individuals have access to necessary health care. Health care for everyone alsorelates to distributive justice. The question being asked today is shall we take what health care resources we have and spread it very thin but so that everyone has equal access of care, or shall we take what resources we have any distribute them in such a way that we will do the most good to for the overall population? American Nursing Association (ANA) Code of Ethics In 1985, the ANA established a Code of Ethics for nurses that contains eleven points. Each of the eleven points is a general principle rather than specific guidelines. For instance, a nurse faced with an ethical dilemma involving resuscitation will find no mention of resuscitation in the Code of Ethics. The ANA has stated that the Code of Ethics is not open to negotiation, they are also currently in the process of updating the Code of Ethics. In this section, each of the eleven points willShow MoreRelatedAmputation Mishap1398 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesamputated during surgery. The newspaper article states the mishap is negligence. In the following paragraphs, negligence, gross negligence, and malpractice are discussed and determine if the newspaperÃ¢â¬â¢s statement of negligence is correct. Ethical principles in nursing and nursing documentation regarding such issues are also discussed. Negligence and malpractice fall under the tort laws definition. According to Guido (2010), Ã¢â¬Å"Torts are civil wrongs, not based on contracts, but on personal transgressionsRead MoreEssay on Negligence in Nursing: The Legal Aspects952 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesphysician. They are not just performing DoctorÃ¢â¬â¢s orders anymore. The nurse role in patient care has been widely expanded. Allegations against someone can be one of the most stressful moments of their careers. Negligence is a defined understanding in nursing to help understand the roles and rules provided, as well as what can be interpreted as negligence. According to Mark Cornock (2011) article The legal definitions of responsibility, accountability and responsibility cannot be held responsible ifRead MoreEthical and Legal Problems Faced by Nurse Practioner1459 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesEthical and Legal Problems Faced by Nurse Practitioners HCA322: Health Care Ethics amp; Medical Law (BGE1226A) Instructor: Eugene Elliott Cara Gerlach 7/23/12 Ethical and Legal Problems Faced by Nurse Practitioners Every medical professional has or will face some ethical and legal issues in the Medical Field, the Nurse Practitioners (NP) are no different. Fant stated that in an ethical dilemma there are no right answers or solutions; however, in these dilemmas there are no wrong answers eitherRead MoreNursing Malpractice And Negligence And Its Effects On Patients Essay1094 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesFarhan Mohammadi Ms. Tidwell English 1A 01 December 2016 Nursing Malpractice and Negligence and its Effects on Patients There are many different variations of healthcare professionals that assist people in regaining and maintaining a healthy lifestyle. The career field of licensed nursing is often considered to be one of the most vital professions within the medical community. Registered nurses work to prevent and heal various different types of injuries, diseases, and illnesses. They are alsoRead MoreNursing Practice And Patients Rights And Safety1549 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesprofessional issues in nursing comprise of various crucial aspects. In this writing, I am going to explore on the topics; negligence in nursing practice and patientÃ¢â¬â¢s rights and safety, which is based on the experience of one of my friends. I chose this topic because negligence is an extremely sensitive part in nursing practice, which directly impacts standard of care, patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ lives and reputation of the health organization. Other qualities like accountability and responsibility in nursing can also be reviewedRead MoreNursing Code Of Ethics, Personal And Societal Values, And The Legal Aspects Of The Nursing1251 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWorking in the nursing profession, nurses must be prepared to assess and support the diverse needs of the patient and their family. Every nurse, regardless of his or her specialty, encounters ethical challenges. However, public health nurses may face unique challenges in their distinct focus on the health of the population in addition to individuals (Haugh Mildon, 2005). In this research paper, I will consider two case studies from the perspective of the nursing code of ethics, personal and societalRead MoreEthics Case Study Essay860 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesEthics Case Study Jerry McCall is an office assistant for Dr. WilliamÃ¢â¬â¢s. Jerry has received training as both a medical assistant and Licensed practical nurses (LPN). During the time the receptionist is out to lunch Jerry is covering for her. Jerry is faced with a common problem in the health care field today. Jerry has been asked to call in a refill for Valium to a pharmacy for a patient. This paper will address why Jerry is not qualified to refill any prescription medication. If Jerry is protectedRead MoreEvaluation Of Patient Safety Ethics1202 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Patient Safety Ethics Student Name Course/Number Date Instructor: Name Patient Safety Ethics Patient Safety Ethics has always been on the foreground of various studies, research, and debates. It is one of the key proponents in providing competent and suitable healthcare services to the clients. It is a subject that has played a major role in defining the scope of the healthcare system and its sub branches. While different forms of patient safety ethics exists globally, the central themeRead MoreA Brief Note On The Organization For Accreditation Of Healthcare Essay1531 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Carline Raymond MSN RN: Helena Correia Ethical/Legal Issues in Health Care Felician University Malpractice and Negligence Paper The Organization for accreditation of healthcare called (JCAHO) demonstrates negligence as a failure to give proper care. It also defines malpractice lack of skill by a professional position unable to provide professional skills when needed. A complaint of neglect towards a healthcare professional can incompetence of skills leading in patientRead MoreA Brief Note On Wrongful Death Lawsuit Of Ard V. East Jefferson General Hospital1206 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Wrongful Death Lawsuit Sonja S. Kennedy MHA 622 (NDB 1435A): Health Care Ethics and Law Instructor: Jared Rutlege September 15, 2014 Abstract: The plaintiff in Ard v. East Jefferson General Hospital, stated on 20 May, she had rang the nurses station to inform the nursing staff that her husband was experiencing symptoms of nausea, pain, and shortness of breathe. After ringing the call button for several times her spouse received his medication. Mrs. Ard noticed that her husband continued
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
The overall economy condition of Australia AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s economy has experienced positive reforms over the last two decades. These reforms have boosted the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economy and raised the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s standard of living. In 2009, Australia was the 13th largest economy by nominal GDP of US$930. 8 billion (Wikipedia). Positively engaged in world trade, Australia is ranked the 21st largest importer and 23rd largest exporter in the world (Economy Watch 2009). Export commodities are: coal, iron ore, gold, meat, wool, alumina, wheat, machinery and transport equipment. The top5 export destinations are China, Japan, North Korea, India and United States. Import commodities are: machinery and transport equipment, computers and office machines, telecommunication equipment and parts; crude oil and petroleum products. The top5 import sources are China, United States, Japan, Thailand and Singapore (Australia fact sheet 2009). Balance of payments in Australia Although Australia has achieved significant economy growth, it still has many problems in developing its economy. To be specific, Australias large current account deficit is currently the greatest concern to some economists. For the past three decades, Australia has had a BOP deficit with its CAD having grown from $195 million in December, 1979 to $18483 million in December, 2009 (ABSxls). With the enormous BOP deficit, Australia has to take measures to control the sources of BOP deficit, so that it will not fall into a debt crisis like GreeceÃ¢â¬â¢s. The latest BOP statistics are listed below: Table1 Current account ;-18483 Goods and Services ;-7467 Goods and Services credits ;60234 Goods and Services debits ;-67701 Goods ;-6898 Goods credits ;46638 Goods debits ;53536 Services ;-569 Services credits ;13596 Services debits ;-14165 Primary income ;-10897 Primary income credits ;9672 Primary income debits ;-20570 Secondary income ;-119 Secondary income credits ;1608 Secondary income debits ;-1727 (Sources: ABS 2009) Table2 Capital and financial account ;17943 Capital account ;-35 Acquisitions/disposals of non-produced non-financial assets ;0 Acquisitions/disposals of non-produced non-financial assets credits ;0 Acquisitions/disposals of non-produced non-financial assets debits ;0 Capital transfers ;-35 Capital transfers credits ;0 Capital transfers debits ;-35 Financial account ;17978 Direct investment ;7731 Direct investment, Assets ;-6087 Direct investment, Liabilities ;13817 Portfolio investment ;-298 Portfolio investment, Assets ;-34144 Portfolio investment, Liabilities ;33846 Financial derivatives ;-2165 Financial derivatives, Assets ;12133 Financial derivatives, Liabilities ;-14297 Other investment ;11529 Other investment, Assets ;-4008 Other investment, Liabilities ;15536 Reserve assets ;1181 Net errors and omissions ;541 (Sources: ABS 2009) From the first chart, we can see that the major components of current account deficit were primary income deficit and goods deficit. At the end of 2009, Australia had a current account deficit of $18483 million in current price terms. Specifically, primary income had a total negative amount of $10897 million, which forms the largest part of current account deficit. Goods had a negative amount of $6848 million, so AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s net import was $6848 million. Besides, services account had a negative amount of $569 million, which illustrates that services import exceeded the services export by $569 million. There were large amount of transactions in goods and services, with a total debit of $67701 million and a total credit of $60234 million. From the second chart, we can see that little capital transactions happened during 2009. The total amount of capital account was -$35 million, which belonged to capital transfer. Financial account had a surplus of $17978 million, with the imbalance in other investment account contributing $11529 million to the surplus. Although there were large amount of transactions in portfolio investment account (assets had an amount of -$34144 million and liabilities had an amount of $33846 million), its net amount was only -$298 million. According to analysis above, the major contribution to current account deficit is the imbalance in primary income. As the debits amount exceeds the credits amount by over $10000 million, which tells us that income outflowÃ¢â¬âthat is the income paid to foreigners by Australians is the major cause of current account deficit, government should take measures to minimize income outflow in order to control the deficit of current account. Since the current account balance is synonymous with net foreign investment in national income accounting (Carbaugh 2002), we can also analyse foreign investment to get an understanding of current account deficit. Table3 Sep Qtr 2009 Dec Qtr 2009 Sep Qtr 2009 to Dec Qtr 2009 $m $m % change _______________________________________ BALANCE ON CURRENT ACCOUNT Trend estimates -14 587 -17 509 -20 Seasonally adjusted -14 731 -17 459 -19 BALANCE ON GOODS AND SERVICES Trend estimates -3 345 -6 349 . . Seasonally adjusted -4 224 -6 062 . . NET PRIMARY INCOME Trend estimates -11 027 -10 973 Seasonally adjusted -10 270 -11 234 -9 LEVELS AT END OF PERIOD International Investme nt Position 756 233 768 628 2 Net foreign equity 122 511 120 733 -1 Net foreign debt 633 722 647 895 2 ________________________________________ . . not applicable nil or rounded to zero (including null cells) Sources: ABS 2009) Table4 Australias investment links, as at 31 Dec 2009: Level of Australian investment abroad (A$m): 1,159,088 Level of foreign investment in Australia (A$m): 1,927,716 (Sources: Australia fact sheet 2009) From table4, we can calculate the net foreign investment is $768628 million at the end of 2009, which is consistent with the figure in table3. From September to December, international investment position increased by $ 12035 million while the current account deficit increased by $2922 million, which indicates that the change directions of IIP and CAD are the same. With net foreign debt account for the major part of IIP, we can come to the conclusion that foreign investment contributes to the CAD in Australia, especially the foreign debt. Table5 International Investment (Sources: ABS 2009) According to figures in table5, Net IIP increased steadily from June, 2008 to December, 2009, which indicates a possibility of continuous growth of Net IIP. From analysis results above, change directions of IIP and CAD are the same, thus we can make a prediction of increase in CAD for the year 2010. The importance of BOP to AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s economy Table6 SELECTED INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTS RATIOS(a)(b) 6-07 07-08 08-09 Sep Qtr Dec Qtr Mar Qtr Jun Qtr Sep Qtr Dec Qtr 2008 2008 2009 2009 2009 2009 GDP ($MILLION) 1 091 328 1 181 751 1 256 458 317 319 329 497 301 194 308 448 312 031 nya Current account Ã¢â¬â5. 4 Ã¢â¬â6. 2 Ã¢â¬â3. 0 Ã¢â¬â5. 5 Ã¢â¬â4. 4 Ã¢â¬â3. 2 Ã¢â¬â3. 0 Ã¢â¬â3. 4 Ã¢â¬â4. Goods and Services Ã¢â¬â1. 2 Ã¢â¬â2. 1 0. 5 Ã¢â¬â1. 6 Ã¢â¬â0. 7 0. 3 0. 5 0. 1 Ã¢â¬â0. 6 Credits 19. 7 19. 8 22. 7 20. 8 22. 4 23. 2 22. 7 21. 6 20. 0 Debits Ã¢â¬â21. 0 Ã¢â¬â21. 8 Ã¢â¬â22. 2 Ã¢â¬â22. 4 Ã¢â¬â23. 1 Ã¢â¬â22. 9 Ã¢â¬â22. 2 Ã¢â¬â21. 4 Ã¢â¬â20. 6 Primary income Ã¢â¬â4. 2 Ã¢â¬â4. Ã¢â¬â3. 4 Ã¢â¬â3. 9 Ã¢â¬â3. 7 Ã¢â¬â3. 5 Ã¢â¬â3. 4 Ã¢â¬â3. 4 Ã¢â¬â3. 5 Net International Investment Position 56. 1 56. 0 57. 1 57. 2 57. 7 58. 1 57. 1 60. 4 61. 4 Net foreign equity 6. 7 4. 8 6. 4 3. 0 1. 4 4. 3 6. 4 9. 8 9. 6 Net foreign deb t 49. 4 51. 2 50. 6 54. 2 56. 3 53. 8 50. 6 50. 7 51. 8 ya not yet available (a) Derived from current price original data. The net international investment position ratios are derived from the net foreign liabilities at the end of the period and GDP for the year ended with that period. Other ratios use only data for the year ended with the period shown. (b) For the latest reference period, GDP for the year ended with the previous quarter is used. (Source: ABS 2009 ) From table6, we can see that the ratio of current account to GDP increased from an absolute value of 5. 4% (06-07) to 6. 2% (07-08), which shows the growing importance of current account in AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s economy growth. The ratio fell to 3. 0% (08-09) as a result of world economic recession. However, after June of 2009, it started to increase again. Net IIP has an increased ratio of 56. 1% (06-07) to 57. 1% (08-09) and at the end of 2009, the ratio boosted to 61. 4%. The steadily increased ratio demonstrates IIP has a close connection with AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s economy growth. Therefore, we can safely make the conclusion that current account balance plays an increasingly important role in AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s economy and change of Net IIP have direct connection with AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s GDP. Imbalance of primary income account accounts for the main part of CAD while Net Foreign debt accounts for the main part of Net IIP. Here comes the question that is the continuous CAD a problem to AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s economy? For Australia, the answer is Ã¢â¬Å"noÃ¢â¬ . As a net borrower, if Australia borrows money to invest in capital equipment which generates a high enough return instead of borrowing money to consume , then the CAD is beneficial for the economy growth since the investment reaps benefit from borrowing (McTaggart, FindlayParkin 2003). Table7 LEVELS OF FOREIGN DEBT AT END OF PERIOD AND SELECTED RATIOS ________________________________________ Period Debt liabilities(a) $m Reserve assets $m Other debt assets $m Net foreign debt(a)(b) $m Ratio of net foreign debt to GDP(c) % Ratio of net interest to goods and services credits(d) % ________________________________________ANNUAL ________________________________________ 1996Ã¢â¬â1997 302,846 -22,791 -71,427 208,628 39. 4 -11. 2 1997Ã¢â¬â1998 346,971 -24,260 -94,929 227,782 40. 6 -9. 7 1998Ã¢â¬â1999 359,839 -23,954 -105,196 230,689 39. 0 -9. 4 1999Ã¢â¬â2000 421,771 -27,948 -116,019 277,804 44. 2 -10. 6 2000-2001498,775-37,951-147,352313,47246. 6-9. 6 2001-2002523,654-37,435-156,456329,76347. 0-9. ________________________________________ (a) Levels from December quarter 1991 are not strictly comparable with levels from earlier periods, due to changes in methodology. (b) Equals debt liabilities less reserve assets and other debt assets. (c) Ratio derived by expressing net debt at a particular date as a percentage of current price original GDP for the year preceding th is date. (d) Ratio derived by expressing net interest on debt as a percentage of exports of goods and services for the year preceding this date. (Source: Balance of Payments and International Investment Position 2002). Table7 illustrates that although ratio of net foreign debt to GDP increased from39. 4% to 47. 0% between1996 and 2002, the ratio of net interest to goods and services credits decreased 2 percent for this period. Hence, it can be claimed that Australia has used the borrowed funds wisely during this period and this increased consumption possibilities for all Australians in the future. If Australia continues to use foreign debt wisely, CAD will bring benefit to the country. Analysis of consequences and prospects of BOP The GDP of Australia has grown with AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s BOP deficit. In other words, CAD in Australia is good for the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s economy development. With a large growing amount of Net IIP, AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s economy growth will be greatly influenced by foreign investments. Thus, a continuing deficit in BOP is expected for the following years. Put it into details, large amount of transactions will be entered into goods and services account which belongs to current account and similar transactions will be recorded in portfolio investment account which belongs to capital and financial account. The total amount of BOP deficit will increase steadily with AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s GDP growth. Internal balance vs. external balance The basic objective of economic policies is the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economic stability with full employment. This is known as internal balance and considered to be of primary importance. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s more, policy makers are also aware of a nationÃ¢â¬â¢s BOP position. A nationÃ¢â¬â¢s external balance is said to be achieved when it realizes BOP equilibrium. Nations usually consider internal balance to be the highest priority unless they are confronted with large and persistent external imbalances, when the priority will be switched to external balance (Carbaugh 2002). Major internal variables of Australia According to statistics released by CIA for the year of 2009, at the end of 2009 Australia had a GDP of US$ 824. 3 billion (PPP) and increased by 1% compared with the year before. Its labour force was 11. 44 million, ranked 44 in the world. The unemployment rate was 5. 7% and increased by 1. 5% from the year before, ranked 55 in the world. The inflation rate fell from 4. 4% in 2008 to 1. 9% in 2009, ranked 62 in the world. The average exchange rate per US dollar is 1. 2894, a slight increase from 2008. In summary, Australia enjoyed an economy growth with relatively low inflation rate and unemployment rate. Macroeconomic and microeconomic policy settings The significant economy performance of Australia in 2009 cannot be apart from the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s wise implementation of macroeconomic and microeconomic policies. With its wide choice in economy policy, Australia recovered from the world economic recession quickly. Microeconomic policies Product and labour market reforms have been implemented since 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s. This has led to the growth in employment and productivity. Owing to a lack of water supply, water management issues have remained one of hot topics for discussions of AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s economy policy. In order to reduce the over-exploitation and wastage of water and natural resources, reforms were put into effect. The increase in aging population, shortage of skilled labour and adequate manpower lead to the labour supply problems in Australia. Immigration is a main contributor to the labour supply. Policies related to incentives for work has formulated. Economy policies also include provision of benefits to disabled workers who are over 55 years old. As a result of successful microeconomic reform, private sector savings and investment decisions were used to achieve external balance. Being acknowledged as a capital-importing nation, Australia invites foreign savers to make investments here, causing the current account deficits (Nguyen n. d. ). Other economy policy includes improvement and development of education system, reorganizing industrial relations and putting stress on infrastructure management (Economy Watch c. 2009). Macroeconomic policies Australian government has used macroeconomic policies successfully in the rebound of Australian economy after the global financial crisis. Before, fiscal policy was once used for achieving external balance objectives, and then it was abandoned quietly due to the successful microeconomic reform (Nguyen n. d. ). During the economic recession, a fiscal stimulus package worth over US$50 billion was brought into effect to neutralize the effect of the slowing world economy, while the Reserve Bank of Australia implemented the monetary policy of reducing interest rates to historic low levels. These policies together with aggregated demand for commoditiesÃ¢â¬âespecially from Chinahelped the Australian economy rebound after just a quarter of negative growth (CIA 2010). Australia was one of the first developed countries to raise interest rates after the economy downturn. Since October, 2009, it has raised interest rates for 3 times. Ã¢â¬Å"As a result of an improved economy, the budget deficit is expected to peak below 4. 2% of GDP and the government could return to budget surpluses as early as 2015Ã¢â¬ (CIA 2010). Recommendations for future policies Macroeconomic policies should be used in conjunction with microeconomic policies in boosting AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s economy. Since the BOP deficit has an increase trend, prudent investigation should be made to analyse the potential threat of CAD to Australian economy. Interest rates can be further increased to attract private investment from foreign savers in exploitation of AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s abundant natural resources. Economy policy should also be made in encouraging local residents to make more savings or investments as a source of their superannuation after retirement. As a result, the old will demand less support from the government and the financial burden of Australian government can alleviate to some extent, which leads to a decrease in government deficit and ultimately reduces the CAD. Furthermore, Ã¢â¬Å"reduction in geographical segmentation of markets should be introduced as it slows down greatly efficiency of labourÃ¢â¬ (Economy Watch c. 2009). Conclusion From contents above, we can come to the conclusion that the main contribution to AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s CAD is primary income deficit and that net international investment has a close connection with BOP deficit. Whether CAD is beneficial or harmful to AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s economy depends on how the borrowed money is spent. If it is used for investment, then CAD will bring benefits to the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economy. Or else, it will be an obstacle to the economy growth. Economy policy is the major determinant of AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s economy growth. Macroeconomic policies should be combined with microeconomic policies in promoting the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s prosperity. The wide implementation of Macroeconomic policy enabled Australia to recover from the economic downturn quickly. The success of microeconomic reforms promotes the continuous growing of Australian economy. Both macroeconomic and microeconomic policies can be used for adjusting the external balance. Bibliography ABS 2009, Balance of Payments and International Investment Position, ABS 2002, Balance of Payments and International Investment Position , Carbaugh, RJ 2002, International Economics, 8th edn, Thomson-South Western College Publishing, Cincinnati, Ohio CIA 2010 the world fact book Australia, Economy Watch 2009, Australia Economy, Economy Watch 2009, Australia Economic Policy, McTaggart, D. , Findlay, C. Parkin, M. 2003, Economics, 4th edn, Addison Wesley, Sydney, pp. 808-819 Nguyen, D n. d. , Macroeconomic Policy in Australia, Market Information and Research Section 2009, Australia fact sheet,
Friday, April 17, 2020
Sociobiology In the middle of this century, bot biological and cultural anthropology experiences a major change in theory. In biological anthropology, biological anthropologists adopted an approach which focused on the gene. They saw the human evolution as the process of genetic adaptation to the environment. In the mean time, there were also cultural analogies to evolution. Cultural evolution also followed a process of adaptation. In the field of anthropology, a very important theory is that of the sociobiologists. Sociobiologists focus on adaptation and reproductive success rather than progress toward perfection. Edward O. Wilson was one of the most important of them. He adopted an approach that focused on the level of the gene. He saw social behavior as controlled, in principle, by particular genes, and he saw evolution as occurring at this level because reproductive success amounted to increasing the frequency of certain genes in future generations. However, the insistence of sociobiologists on grounding at least some behavior in universal human genetic predisposition runs contrary to cultural anthropologists' emphasis on the primacy of culture itself as the determinant of human social life. Several distinct approaches can be identified in contemporary sociobiology. The first one is evolutionary psychology. Evolutionary psychology is concerned primarily with the analysis of the mind as a device formed by natural selection. The second focus is human behavioral ecology. It emphasized populations rather than cultures, human population biology, as well as evolutionary ecology. The difference from evolutionary psychology is that it focuses on testing the hypotheses that culturally patterned traits actually enhance fitness rather than mind. The third approach involves the search for human universals. People advocating this kind of approach concentrate on discovering the characteristics found in all human societies. (McGee and Warms, 1996) However, this universal evolution point of view is rejected by other anthropologists such as Julian Steward. Steward developed an ecological approach that focused on the adaptation of individual cultures to specific environmental circumstances rather than trying to find out the universal law of human evolution and adaptation. He devoted most of his energy to the study of the environmental adaptation of specific societies. He did not believe that cultures followed a single universal sequence of development. Instead, he proposed that cultures could evolve in any number of distinct patterns depending on their environmental circumstances. He called his theory multilinear evolution. He also proposed that cultures in similar environments would tend to follow the same developmental sequences and formulate similar responses to their environmental challenges. (McGee and Warms, 1996) However, the multilinear point of view was not proposed by other anthropologists such as Leslie White. White concludes that unilineal evolutionary theory was fundamentally sound. He argued that evolutionary development from simple to complex, with increasing specialization of parts, was valid bot for cultures and for biology. He also proposed a grand, universal law of cultural evolution by means of the control of energy as the key factor in cultural evolution: culture advances as the amount of energy harnessed per capita per ear increases, or as the efficiency with which energy is utilized increases. (McGee and Warms, 1996) Still, there were other anthropologists who proposed both a multiliear and a universal law of evolution. For example, George Peter Murdock was interested in the statistical testing of cross-cultural hypotheses. His cross-cultural comparisons of cultural traits in many ways paralleled Steward's theory of multilinear evolution. In the meantime, he also believed that a universal set of principle governed the relationship between family structure, kinship, and marriage practices. In this sense, his attempts to statistically demonstrate universal principles of kin relation s resembled White's effort to formulate a universal theory of cultural evolution. (McGee and Warms, 1996) Besides, William C. Boyd also suggests that there is no doubt that some rectilinearity can often be observed in evolution. Nevertheless, rectilinear evolution is far from universal. (Boyd, 1952) Another key issue concerning human evolution is the issue of race. The definition of race, according to many anthropologists, is based on the frequency of certain genes. William C. Boyd defines race as that "A race is not an individual, and it is not a single genotype, but it is a group of individuals more or less from the same geographical area (a population), usually with a number of identical genes, but in which many different types may occur." His definition or race is a genetic one. (Boyd, 1952) Echoing Boyd, Dobzhansky also suggests that races arise chiefly as a result of the ordering of the genetic variability by natural selection in conformity with the environmental conditions in different territories. He said that "since human population often, in fact